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PAULA (University of Potsdam)

PAULA stands for Potsdamer Austauschformat für linguistische Annotation ("Potsdam Interchange Format for Linguistic Annotation"). PAULA has been developed in Project D1: Linguistic Database: Annotation and Retrieval of the SFB 632. It is an XML-based standoff representation format, which has been designed to represent data annotated at multiple layers. For visualization and querying of the PAULA data, the database ANNIS can be used.


  • Dipper, Stefanie (2005): XML-based Stand-off Representation and Exploitation of Multi-Level Linguistic Annotation. In: Eckstein, Rainer & Tolksdorf, Robert (eds.), Proceedings of Berliner XML Tage, 39-50.
  • Dipper, Stefanie & Götze, Michael (2005): Accessing Heterogeneous Linguistic Data – Generic XML-based Representation and Flexible Visualization. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Language & Technology Conference: Human Language Technologies as a Challenge for Computer Science and Linguistics. Poznań, Poland, 206-210.