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Advanced Glossing is a schema for linguistic annotation on all major linguistic levels: phonetics and phonology (including intonation), orthographic representations of sentences, word forms and morphs, morphological and syntactic annotation on units, categories, constituency and relational structure, and semantics. It has been developed and proposed in the context of the DOBES (Documentation of Endangered Languages) Program.

Advanced Glossing is not a tool, although it has served for general orientation in the development of the data model underlying ELAN, and it can be widely implemented with that tool. Also the Toolbox tool can be configured in a way that implements the Advanced Glossing scheme (see reference below).

In its original form, Advanced Glossing proposes 13 lines for Syntactic Glossing Tables (each S.G. table annotating a sentence or analog unit in speech) and 13 lines for Morphological Glossing Tables (each M.G. table annotating a single word form), with a few instances of overlap within and among the two types of tables. Of course, filling all lines in for a text would be very time consuming. But A.G. has never been meant as an obligatory maximum scheme, but rather as a point of reference which can serve to identify and classify different types of annotation. For instance, the traditional interlinear glossings (IMT ``Interlinear Morpheme-by-Morpheme Translations/Glosses´´, often used in descriptive texts and by typologists, see the Leipzig Glossing Rules) can be described in terms of lines (data categories) of Advanced Glossing, making its content more explicit.


'Advanced Glossing, a Language Documentation Format' by Hans-Heinrich Lieb and Sebastian Drude (2000) (Unpublished DOBES working paper). Available online at

'Advanced Glossing — a language documentation format and its implementation with Shoebox' by Sebastian Drude (2003). In: Proceedings of the LREC-Workshop in May 2002, Las Palmas: W1: International Workshop on Resources and Tools in Field Linguistics. Available online at

'Digitizing and annotating texts and field recordings in the Awetí Project' by Sebastian Drude (2003). Published online in the proceedings of the third EMELD conference on ``Digitizing and Annotating Texts and Field Recordings´´, together with the LSA Institute, Michigan State University, Lansing, Juli 2003.